Physical and Environmental Sciences

Physical and Environmental Sciences: Introduction

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Faculty Affiliation

University of Toronto Scarborough (UTSC)

Degree Programs

Environmental Science

MEnvSc

  • Fields:
    • Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation;
    • Conservation and Biodiversity​;
    • Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems

 

PhD

  • Concentrations:
    • Climate Change and the Environment;
    • Contaminant Flux;
    • Environmental Science in Transitional Economies;
    • Great Lakes Ecosystems;
    • Remediation and Restoration of Degraded Environmental Systems;
    • Urban Geoscience

Combined Degree Programs

Collaborative Specializations

The following collaborative specializations are available to students in the participating degree programs as listed below:

Overview

The Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences offers opportunities for graduate studies in environmental science, leading to the degrees of Master of Environmental Science (MEnvSc) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Environmental Science.

Contact and Address

Web: www.utsc.utoronto.ca/gradpes
MEnvSc email: gisela.bento@utoronto.ca
PhD email: elaine.pick@utoronto.ca
MEnvSc telephone: (416) 287-7205
PhD telephone: (416) 208-2910
Fax: (416) 287-7204

Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences
University of Toronto Scarborough
1265 Military Trail, EV254
Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4
Canada

Physical and Environmental Sciences: Graduate Faculty

Full Members

Abbatt, Jonathan - BSc, PhD
Allen, D. Grant - BASc, MASc, PhD
Andrade, Maydianne - BSc, MS, PhD
Archontitsis, George Arhonditsis - BSc, MSc, DScA (Chair and Graduate Chair)
Boonstra, Rudy - BSc, PhD
Cadotte, Marc - BS, MS, PhD
Campbell, Malcolm - DPhil
Chen, Jing - BSc, PhD
Cowling, Sharon - BSc, MSc, PhD
Desloges, Joseph - BES, MSc, PhD
Diamond, Miriam - MSc, MSc, PhD
Dittrich, Maria - BES, MSc, PhD
Donaldson, D. James - PhD
Edwards, Elizabeth - BEng, PhD
Evans, Greg - PhD
Eyles, Nicholas - BSc, MSc, PhD, DSc
Finkelstein, Sarah - AB, MPH, PhD
Fulthorpe, Roberta - BSc, MSc, PhD
Gough, William - BSc, MSc, PhD
He, Yuhong - PhD
Hoffmann, Matthew - BSc, PhD
Howard, Ken - BSc, MSc, PhD
Isaac, Marney Elizabeth - BS, MES, PhD
Izmaylov, Artur - PhD
Jackson, Donald - BSc, MSc, PhD
Kerman, Kagan - BScPhm, MSc, ScD
Klenk, Nicole - BS, MSc, PhD
Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard - BA, MC, PhD (Vice-Principal, Research)
Kronzucker, Herbert - PhD
Lovejoy, Nathan Richard - BSc, MS, PhD
MacIvor, Scott - BSc, MSc, PhD
Malcolm, Jay - BSc, MSc, PhD
Martin, Adam - BA, MF, PhD
Miall, Andrew - BSc, PhD
Mitchell, Carl - PhD
Molnar, Peter Kalman - BS, MMath, PhD
Murphy, Jennifer - BCh, DChem
Peng, Hui - PhD
Rochman, Chelsea - BS, PhD
Sherwood Lollar, Barbara - PhD
Short, Steven - BSc, PhD
Siegel, Jeffrey Alexander - BS, MS, PhD
Simpson, Andre - BSc, PhD
Simpson, Myrna - BS, DPhil
Smith, Sandy - BAgrSc, MSc, PhD
Strong, Kimberly - PhD
Sullan, Ruby May - BSc, PhD
Terebiznik, Mauricio - BSc, PhD
Tsuji, Leonard - BSc, DDS, PhD
Vanlerberghe, Greg - BSc, MSc, PhD
Voznyy, Oleksandr - BSc, MSc, PhD
Wania, Frank - MPH, PhD
Wells, Mathew - BS, DPhil
Wiseman, Clare - BES, MSc, ScD
Wortmann, Ulrich - BSc, MSc, PhD
Zhang, Xiaoan - MS, PhD

Associate Members

Bailey, Sarah - BSc, PhD
Bergquist, Bridget - BS, PhD
Bhavsar, Satyendrakumar - BE, PhD
Dalili, Shadi - MSc, PhD
Daxberger, Heidi - PhD
De Silva, Amila - BSc, MSc, PhD
Emilson, Erik - BSc, MSc, PhD
Hadzovic, Alen - BSc, PhD
Harner, Tom - BChe, ME, DrEng
Helm, Paul - BSc, MASc, DChem
Koops, Marten - BSc, MSc, PhD
Laidler, Gita - BA, MSc, PhD
Latulippe, Nicole Monique - BA, MA, PhD
Mackereth, Rob - BSc, MSc, PhD
MacLellan, James - BA, MS, DPhil
Mandrak, Nicholas - BSc, MSc, PhD
Meriano, Mandana - ScD
Mikhaylichenko, Svetlana - MSc, DChem
Mohsin, Tanzina - PhD
Muir, Derek - BSc, MSc, PhD
Palmer, Michelle - BSc, MSc, PhD
Sauer, Effiette - BS, PhD
Smith, Karen Louise - BSc, MASc, MASc, PhD
Steffen, Alexandra - BSc, MSc
Weaver, Dan - BSc, MS, PhD
Weyl, Olaf - PhD
Wilson, Kathleen - AB, AM, PhD
Yerubandi, Ram - MTech, PhD
Zhu, Jiping - BS, MSc, DSc

Physical and Environmental Sciences: Environmental Science MEnvSc

Master of Environmental Science

Program Description

The MEnvSc is a 12-month degree program committed to the development of well-trained practitioners in environmental science in all fields, primarily to meet the needs of industry, governments, and environmental policy/education organizations.

The MEnvSc offers three enrolment options — research, internship, and part-time studies — in each of the three fields. The three designated fields of study are:

  • Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: Students are trained in the science, data analysis, and rigorous assessment process for the impacts of climate change on a wide range of natural and human systems.

  • Conservation and Biodiversity: A major focus is the application of ecological theory and principles to real-world conservation challenges.

  • Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems: A major focus is understanding the flux of contaminants and excess nutrients through surface and sub-surface environments and the methods/solutions needed to remediate contaminated or damaged environmental systems.

In all three fields, students can opt for an internship or a research option after eight months of coursework. The Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences has the support of two dedicated internship coordinators who help students find and successfully complete an internship by providing them with professional skills training and in-class workshops on topics that include job search preparation and skills such as: environmental labour market, workplace expectations, professionalism, networking, and more. The MEnvSc program works closely with a broad employer base for internship opportunities. Research-stream MEnvSc students receive intensive and individualized academic and research support from mentors of their choice.

Full-time and part-time study options are available in all fields of study.

 

Field: Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation

Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences' additional admission requirements stated below.

  • Applicants whose primary language is not English and who graduated from a university where the language of instruction and examination was not English must demonstrate proficiency in English. See General Regulations section 4.3 for requirements.

  • A minimum mid-B grade average in the last two years of the undergraduate program.

  • Applicants must submit a written statement explaining their objectives for entering the program and the suitability of their background. Appropriate post-graduate work experiences will be considered as part of the admission application.

  • A science or engineering undergraduate degree including at least two half courses or one full course in each of chemistry, physics, calculus, and biology.

Program Requirements

  • Coursework consists of 5.5 full-course equivalents (FCEs) as follows:

    • EES 1100H Advanced Seminar in Environmental Science (0.5 FCE)

    • EES 1117H Climate Change Impact Assessment (0.5 FCE)

    • EES 1132H Climate Data Analysis (0.5 FCE).

      • Note: students who have completed EESD21H3 as part of their undergraduate degree, and achieved a minimum grade of 70%, should replace EES 1132H with another elective graduate course of the same credit weight (0.5 FCE).

    • EES 1133H Climate Change Science and Modelling (0.5 FCE)

    • Completion of two of the following three courses:

      • EES 1131H Applied Climatology (0.5 FCE)

      • EES 1134H Climate Change Policy (0.5 FCE)

      • EES 1136H Climate Change Adaptation (0.5 FCE)

    • Completion of either:

      • 0.5 FCE in elective courses (see course list) and 2.0 FCEs for the internship (EES 1116Y), or

      • 1.0 FCE in elective courses (see course list) and 1.5 FCEs for the research paper (EES 1101Y). Students planning to complete the research paper option must complete the prerequisite (EES 1114H).

  • Students will choose either a research or internship option.

    • Research option: Each student is required to have a research supervisor. For full-time students, the intensive research necessary for the research paper will normally be completed in the final Summer session. The final research paper needs to be written in scientific journal format and will be presented and defended orally in front of an examination committee. The committee will include the supervisor and two other members of the graduate faculty.

    • Internship option: For full-time students, the internship in private industry, government, or a non-governmental organization (NGO) will normally be completed in the final Summer session. It will consist of a minimum of four consecutive months. Successful completion of the internship is based on an assessment completed by the student's work supervisor, the satisfactory completion of a written experience report, and the satisfactory completion and presentation of a poster highlighting the internship experience.

  • A final grade below 70% in any course equates to an FZ, which is an insufficient grade. A MEnvSc student who receives more than one final grade of FZ (i.e., two or more) will be recommended for termination of registration from the MEnvSc program.

Program Length

3 sessions full-time (typical registration sequence: F/W/S);
6 sessions part-time

Time Limit

3 years full-time;
6 years part-time

 

Field: Conservation and Biodiversity

Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences' additional admission requirements stated below.

  • Applicants whose primary language is not English and who graduated from a university where the language of instruction and examination was not English must demonstrate proficiency in English. See General Regulations section 4.3 for requirements.

  • A minimum mid-B grade average in the last two years of the undergraduate program.

  • Applicants must submit a written statement explaining their objectives for entering the program and the suitability of their background. Appropriate post-graduate work experiences will be considered as part of the admission application.

  • An undergraduate degree in biology or a closely related field.​

Program Requirements

  • Coursework consists of 5.5 full-course equivalents (FCEs) as follows:

    • EES 1100H Advanced Seminar in Environmental Science (0.5 FCE)

    • EES 3000H Applied Conservation Biology (0.5 FCE)

    • EES 3001H Professional Scientific Literacy (0.5 FCE)

    • EES 3002H Conservation Policy (0.5 FCE)

    • EES 3003H Topics in Applied Biodiversity (0.5 FCE)

    • Completion of either:

      • 1.0 FCE in elective courses (see the course list) and 2.0 FCEs for the internship (EES 1116Y) or

      • 1.5 FCEs in elective courses (see the course list) and 1.5 FCEs for the research paper (EES 1101Y).

  • Students will choose either a research or internship option.

    • Research option: Each student is required to have a research supervisor. For full-time students, the intensive research necessary for the research paper will normally be completed in the final Summer session. The final research paper needs to be written in scientific journal format and will be presented and defended orally in front of an examination committee. The committee will include the supervisor and two other members of the graduate faculty.

    • Internship option: For full-time students, the internship in private industry, government, or a non-governmental organization (NGO) will normally be completed in the final Summer session. It will consist of a minimum of four consecutive months. Successful completion of the internship is based on an assessment completed by the student's work supervisor, the satisfactory completion of a written experience report, and the satisfactory completion and presentation of a poster highlighting the internship experience.

  • A final grade below 70% in any course equates to an FZ, which is an insufficient grade. A MEnvSc student who receives more than one final grade of FZ (i.e., two or more) will be recommended for termination of registration from the MEnvSc program.

Program Length

3 sessions full-time (typical registration sequence: F/W/S);
6 sessions part-time

Time Limit

3 years full-time;
6 years part-time

 

Field: Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems

Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences' additional admission requirements stated below.

  • Applicants whose primary language is not English, and who graduated from a university where the language of instruction and examination was not English, must demonstrate proficiency in English. See General Regulations section 4.3 for requirements.

  • A minimum mid-B grade average in the last two years of the undergraduate program.

  • Applicants must submit a written statement explaining their objectives for entering the program and the suitability of their background. Appropriate post-graduate work experiences will be considered as part of the admission application.

  • A science or engineering undergraduate degree including at least two half courses or one full course in each of chemistry, physics, calculus, and biology.

Program Requirements

  • Coursework consists of 5.5 full-course equivalents (FCEs) as follows:

    • EES 1100H Advanced Seminar in Environmental Science (0.5 FCE)

    • Complete either:

      • 3.0 FCEs in elective courses (see the course list) and 2.0 FCEs for the internship (EES 1116Y) or

      • 3.5 FCEs in elective courses (see the course list) and 1.5 FCEs for the research paper (EES 1101Y). Students planning to complete the research paper option must complete the prerequisite EES 1114H.

  • Students will choose either a research or internship option.

    • Research option: Each student is required to have a research supervisor. For full-time students, the intensive research necessary for the research paper will normally be completed in the final Summer session. The final research paper needs to be written in scientific journal format and will be presented and defended orally in front of an examination committee. The committee will include the supervisor and two other members of the graduate faculty.

    • Internship option: For full-time students, the internship in private industry, government, or a non-governmental organization (NGO) will normally be completed in the final Summer session. It will consist of a minimum of four consecutive months. Successful completion of the internship is based on an assessment completed by the student's work supervisor, the satisfactory completion of a written experience report, and the satisfactory completion and presentation of a poster highlighting the internship experience.

  • A final grade below 70% in any course equates to an FZ, which is an insufficient grade. A MEnvSc student who receives more than one final grade of FZ (i.e., two or more) will be recommended for termination of registration from the MEnvSc program.

Program Length

3 sessions full-time (typical registration sequence: F/W/S);
6 sessions part-time

Time Limit

3 years full-time;
6 years part-time​

Physical and Environmental Sciences: Environmental Science MEnvSc Courses

Please note that not all courses are offered every year.

EES 1100H
Advanced Seminar in Environmental Science
EES 1101Y
Research Paper in Environmental Science
EES 1102H
Analytical Chemistry for Geoscientists
EES 1104H
Microorganisms and the Environment
EES 1105H
Soil Contamination Chemistry
EES 1106H
Geological Evolution and Environmental History of North America
EES 1108H
Environmental Science Field Camp
EES 1109H
Advanced Techniques in Geographic Information Systems
EES 1111H
Freshwater Ecology and Biomonitoring
EES 1113H
Groundwater Hydrochemistry and Contaminant Transport
EES 1114H
Directed Readings in Environmental Science I
EES 1115H
Directed Readings in Environmental Science II
EES 1116Y
Internship
EES 1117H
Climate Change Impact Assessment
EES 1118H
Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling
EES 1119H
Quantitative Environmental Analysis
EES 1120H
Fluid Dynamics of Contaminant Transport
EES 1121H
Modelling the Fate of Organic Chemicals in the Environment
EES 1122H
Global Environmental Security and Sustainable Development
EES 1123H
Environmental Regulations
EES 1124H
Environmental Project Management
EES 1125H
Contaminated Site Remediation
EES 1126H
Hydrology and Watershed Management
EES 1127H
Applied Biogeochemistry and Geomicrobiology
EES 1128H
Biophysical Interactions in Managed Environments
EES 1129H
Brownfields Redevelopment
EES 1131H
Applied Climatology
EES 1132H
Climate Data Analysis (exclusion: EESD21H3)
EES 1133H
Climate Change Science and Modelling
EES 1134H
Climate Change Policy
EES 1135H
Environmental Change and Human Health
EES 1136H
Climate Change Adaptation
EES 1137H
Quantitative Applications for Data Analysis
EES 1701H
Environmental Legislation and Policy
EES 1704H
Environmental Risk Assessment
EES 3000H
Applied Conservation Biology
EES 3001H
Professional Scientific Literacy
EES 3002H
Conservation Policy
EES 3003H
Topics in Applied Biodiversity
EES 3111H
Conservation Genetics
EES 3113H
Topics in Population and Community Ecology
EES 3114H
Topics in Urban and Rural Ecology
EES 4001H
Internship Training 1 (restricted to students enrolled in one of the approved combined degree programs with the MEnvSc)
EES 4003H
Academic Training 1 (restricted to students enrolled in one of the approved combined degree programs with the MEnvSc)

Physical and Environmental Sciences: Environmental Science PhD

Doctor of Philosophy

Program Description

Research and teaching are focused on the interfaces between traditional disciplines in dealing with fundamental scientific issues. Faculty members are cross-appointed from several departments including: chemistry, earth sciences, geography, ecology and evolutionary biology, cell and systems biology, engineering, forestry, physics, and social sciences. Research is clustered into six major concentrations:

  • Climate Change and the Environment

  • Contaminant Flux

  • Environmental Science in Transitional Economies

  • Great Lakes Ecosystems

  • Remediation and Restoration of Degraded Environmental Systems

  • Urban Geoscience

Applicants may be accepted into the PhD program via one of three routes: 1) following completion of an appropriate master’s degree; 2) transfer from an appropriate master's program; or 3) direct entry following completion of an appropriate BSc degree.

 

PhD Program

​Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences' additional admission requirements stated below.

  • Applicants may be accepted into the PhD program:

    • Following completion of the MEnvSc degree, an MSc degree in environmental science, or a related discipline, or the MASc degree in environmental engineering or related discipline, or equivalent from a recognized university with a minimum of B+ average in all work completed in the master's program.

    • By requesting transfer from a suitable master's program (see above); students may reclassify from the master's program after 12 months of full-time study. Transfer from the MEnvSc program is not permitted

Program Requirements

  • Coursework. A total of 2.0 full-course equivalents (FCEs) as follows:

    • A mandatory 0.5 FCE (EES 2200H Advanced Seminar in Environmental Science) plus 1.5 FCEs to provide background for the student's research. Courses selected must be approved by the student's supervisor and the Graduate Chair. In some cases, additional courses may be required if a student's preparedness is assessed as being insufficient.

    • ​​​​​​​​Students may apply to take a number of PhD-level courses taught by the core faculty, both within the Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences and outside the Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences as part of their 1.5 FCEs for the degree. However, all courses for the PhD degree must be approved by the student's supervisor and the Graduate Chair.

  • Thesis. The execution of an original piece of research in environmental science carried out under faculty supervision and presented in thesis form. The program requires the development and submission of a thesis proposal, and its examination in an oral thesis proposal appraisal (before the end of Year 2), a departmental oral examination of the completed thesis, and a Doctoral Final Oral Examination (FOE) carried out under the auspices of the School of Graduate Studies (SGS) involving examination by an appropriate at-arms-length external examiner.

    • ​​​​The PhD proposal appraisal consists of a 20-minute presentation given by the student on the proposed thesis work followed by a question period where the student is examined on their proposal and their mastery of concepts in environmental science. The emphasis will be on the theory and proposed approach, rather than on progress to date. A negative outcome requires that the student retake the exam within four months after incorporating recommendations from the committee for improving the thesis research proposal. The outcome of the second exam will be either a pass or withdrawal from the program.

    • The Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences' PhD program requires that all PhD candidates complete two thesis defences: a Departmental Thesis Defence and an FOE with SGS. Normally, the Departmental Thesis Defence will be held at least eight weeks prior to the FOE. The committee will notify the Graduate Chair that the thesis is ready to be forwarded to SGS for the FOE. If the PhD candidate does not pass the Departmental Thesis Defence, the committee may recommend that the PhD candidate postpone their FOE.

Program Length

4 years full-time; 5 years transfer-from-master's

Time Limit

6 years full-time; 7 years transfer-from-master's​

 

PhD Program (Direct-Entry)

​Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences' additional admission requirements stated below.

  • In the case of exceptional students, applicants may be accepted into the PhD program by direct entry; that is, after completing an honours BSc degree in a related discipline with a minimum University of Toronto average of A– or equivalent.

Program Requirements

  • Coursework. A total of 3.0 full-course equivalents (FCEs) as follows:

    • A mandatory 0.5 FCE (EES 2200H Advanced Seminar in Environmental Science) plus 2.5 FCEs to provide background for the student's research. Courses selected must be approved by the student's supervisor and the Graduate Chair. In some cases, additional courses may be required if a student's preparedness is assessed as being insufficient.

    • ​​​​​​​​Students may apply to take a number of PhD-level courses taught by the core faculty, both within the Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences and outside the Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences as part of their 2.5 FCEs for the degree. However, all courses for the PhD degree must be approved by the student's supervisor and the Graduate Chair.

  • Thesis. The execution of an original piece of research in environmental science carried out under faculty supervision and presented in thesis form. The program requires the development and submission of a thesis proposal, and its examination in an oral thesis proposal appraisal (before the end of Year 2), a departmental oral examination of the completed thesis, and a Doctoral Final Oral Examination (FOE) carried out under the auspices of the School of Graduate Studies (SGS) involving examination by an appropriate at-arms-length external examiner.

    • ​​​​The PhD proposal appraisal consists of a 20-minute presentation given by the student on the proposed thesis work followed by a question period where the student is examined on their proposal and their mastery of concepts in environmental science. The emphasis will be on the theory and proposed approach, rather than on progress to date. A negative outcome requires that the student retake the exam within four months after incorporating recommendations from the committee for improving the thesis research proposal. The outcome of the second exam will be either a pass or withdrawal from the program.

    • The Graduate Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences' PhD program requires that all PhD candidates complete two thesis defences: a Departmental Thesis Defence and an FOE with SGS. Normally, the Departmental Thesis Defence will be held at least eight weeks prior to the FOE. The committee will notify the Graduate Chair that the thesis is ready to be forwarded to SGS for the FOE. If the PhD candidate does not pass the Departmental Thesis Defence, the committee may recommend that the PhD candidate postpone their FOE.

Program Length

5 years full-time

Time Limit

7 years full-time

Physical and Environmental Sciences: Environmental Science PhD Courses

Core Course

EES 2200H
Advanced Seminar in Environmental Science

The following are courses offered within the Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences. With the approval of the Graduate Chair, relevant courses from other graduate departments can be applied to the required full-course equivalents. Not all courses are offered every year.

Elective Courses

EES 1102H
Analytical Chemistry for Geoscientists
EES 1104H
Microorganisms and the Environment
EES 1105H
Soil Contamination Chemistry
EES 1106H
Geological Evolution and Environmental History of North America
EES 1109H
Advanced Techniques in Geographic Information Systems
EES 1111H
Freshwater Ecology and Biomonitoring
EES 1113H
Groundwater Hydrochemistry and Contaminant Transport
EES 1117H
Climate Change Impact Assessment
EES 1118H
Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling
EES 1119H
Quantitative Environmental Analysis
EES 1120H
Fluid Dynamics of Contaminant Transport
EES 1121H
Modeling the Fate of Organic Chemicals in the Environment
EES 1122H
Global Environmental Security and Sustainable Development
EES 1126H
Hydrology and Watershed Management
EES 1127H
Applied Biogeochemistry and Geomicrobiology
EES 1128H
Biophysical Interactions in Managed Environments
EES 1131H
Applied Climatology
EES 1132H
Climate Data Analysis (exclusion: EESD21H3)
EES 1133H
Climate Change Science and Modelling
EES 1134H
Climate Change Policy
EES 1135H
Environmental Change and Human Health
EES 1136H
Climate Change Adaptation
EES 1137H
Quantitative Applications for Data Analysis
EES 2201H
Advanced Readings in Environmental Science
EES 3000H
Applied Conservation Biology
EES 3001H
Professional Scientific Literacy
EES 3002H
Conservation Policy
EES 3003H
Topics in Applied Biodiversity
EES 3111H
Conservation Genetics
EES 3113H
Topics in Population and Community Ecology
EES 3114H
Topics in Urban and Rural Ecology