Degree Regulations

12 Doctoral Degrees
13 Master's Degrees

All degree students are accepted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies.

All degree program students are subject to both the General Regulations and Degree Regulations in this calendar. In particular, note section 7 of the General Regulations, Good Academic Standing and Satisfactory Academic Progress, Time Limits, Supervision, and Candidacy.

The University of Toronto offers graduate programs leading to doctoral and master's degrees. Numerous degree types are offered in a variety of programs in multiple graduate units. Degree types that are specific to one graduate program are listed below with a link to details contained ​in the graduate unit entry. See Programs by Graduate Unit.

12 Doctoral Degrees

The University of Toronto offers programs of study leading to four doctoral degrees:

Degrees offered in multiple programs are listed first, followed by degrees specific to one graduate program.

12.1 Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

The PhD is offered in a variety of programs in multiple graduate units. For specific admission and program requirements, consult graduate unit entries. The Graduate Education Council of the School of Graduate Studie​s has recommended that all graduate units offering the PhD degree design a four-year program that can be completed on a full-time basis by a student who holds a master's degree in a discipline appropriate to the intended field of study. Where graduate units are aware that it may be difficult for students to complete their PhD programs within four years, they should include a statement to that effect in their calendar entries. Where students are not able to complete all degree requirements within four years, all requirements for the degree must be completed within six years from first enrolment.

12.1.1 Admission Requirements

12.1.1.1 Fo​ur-Year PhD Program

Students admitted to this program require an appropriate master's degree with at least B+ standing from a recognized university in a discipline deemed appropriate for the intended field of study.

A student who is admitted on condition that the requirements for an acceptable master's degree at another university are completed may be permitted conditional registration, unless this is excluded by the terms of the letter of admission. A student who is conditionally registered must submit to the graduate unit, not later than January 31 of the first year of enrolment, official verification of completion of the requirements for the master's degree. If verification is not submitted by that date, additional requirements may be added to the PhD program. See further information in section 4 of General Regulations, Admission Regulations and Procedures.

12.1.1.2 Five-Year PhD Program (Referred to as "Direct-Entry")

Students admitted to this program, where offered, require an appropriate bachelor's degree with at least A- standing from a recognized university in courses in a discipline deemed appropriate for the intended field of study. Students who hold a master's degree in a discipline deemed not appropriate or require further preparation would normally be admitted to this program.

12.1.1.3 Flexible-Time PhD Program Option

Applicants may apply to a flexible-time PhD program option in a graduate unit offering such an option that has been approved through University of Toronto governance. Details are found in each program entry; see Programs by Graduate Unit. Applications to flexible-time PhD program options are subject to the SGS General Regulations and Degree Regulations and must meet the same admission requirements as applicants to the full-time PhD program.

In addition, applicants to the flexible-time PhD program option must demonstrate that they are "practising professionals"; that is, they are active professionals who are engaged in work activities that may include consulting, community organizing, self-employment, contractual work, or equivalent.

Applicants to the flexible-time PhD program option must demonstrate:

  1. that the research and proposed program of study is related to the applicant's professional work and vice versa;
  2. that they will continue to be professionally engaged while registered in the program.

12.1.2 Program Require​​ments

PhD students must register for every successive session, including summers, on a full-time basis following the first session of registration unless granted a leave of absence. The minimum degree fee is based on one academic year, that is, three consecutive sessions. All PhD students are subject to rules and regulations outlined in the General Regulations, including section 7​​​​​ on Good Academic Standing requirements, in addition to these PhD degree requirements and those of the graduate unit in which the student is registered. See also Flexible-Time PhD Program Option, below.

12.1.2.1 Four-Year P​hD Program

Most PhD applicants are admitted to a four-year PhD program based on the completion of an appropriate master's degree as detailed in the admission requirements section above and the General Regulations section. Where graduate units are aware that it may be difficult for students to complete their PhD programs within four years, they have been asked to include a statement to that effect in their calendar entries. Where students are not able to complete all degree requirements within four years, all requirements for the degree must be completed within six years from first enrolment.

12.1.2.2 Five-Year PhD Program (Direct-Entry)

Graduate units may offer a five-year PhD program, approved through University of Toronto governance. Qualifie​d students may be admitted into a five-year PhD program (direct-entry) based on the completion of an appropriate bachelor's degree as detailed in the admission requirements section above and in the General Regulations. See the above section 12.1.1.2 Five-Year PhD Progr​am (Direct-Entry)​ Admission Requirements.

Students in a direct-entry PhD program will register full-tim​e. Five-year PhD program requirements will include:

  • The program requirements for the four-year PhD program;
  • A substantial portion of the requirements for the master's degree;
  • Additional requirements may be required by the graduate unit;
  • Achieving acceptable minimum grades or averages for Year 1 courses;
  • Students must be in Good Academic Standing at the end of Year 1.

Other than the requirements stated here, the five-year PhD program differs from the four-year PhD program requirements only in the additional first year of the program and related effects to timing of other PhD program components.

​12.1.2.3 Flexible-Time PhD Program Option​

Graduate units may offer a flexible-time PhD program option, approved through University of Toronto governance. Such a program option is offered where there is sufficient demand by practising professionals in related fields. The design and delivery of a flexible-time PhD program option permits continued employment by the student in areas related to the student's field of research, except for short specified periods of time. In these programs, theory and praxis uniquely engage and inform each other. See further information in Degree Regulations, Admission Requirements section 12.1.1.3 Flexible-Time PhD Program Option.​

The flexible-time PhD program option differs from the full-time PhD program only in design and delivery. Students in a flexible-time PhD program option will register full-time during the first four years and part-time during subsequent years in the program. Students are required to be registered for every successive session, including summers, following the first session of registration unless granted a leave of absence. Each graduate ​unit offering a flexible-time PhD option will identify a program length for students in the option, which normally will be five or six years.

The time limit, between six and eight years, will be established through the graduate unit practice. Transfers between the full-time PhD program and the flexible-time PhD program option are not permitted. Students in the flexible-time option must satisfy the SGS General Regulations and Degree Regulations in the SGS Calendar, including good academic standing, supervision, and candidacy regulations. ​

12.1.2.4 Approval​

The graduate unit must approve a student's program of study and research.

12.1.2.5 Program

Specific program requirements are set by the graduate units and are found in their respective entries. The thesis topic and the name of the supervisor must be submitted by the middle of the first session in Year 2. Graduate units may, at their discretion, require an earlier date.

12.1.2.6 Language Requirement

Individual graduate units may require that students have an adequate knowledge of such language or languages, other than English, in order to complete the degree program. (See individual graduate unit entries for specific requirements.)

Testing and certification of languages may be administered by the appropriate language department or by the student's own graduate unit.

The graduate unit in which the student is registered is responsible for ensuring that an appropriate certificate of language competence is recorded in the official student file.

12.1.2.7 Achieving Candidacy: Requirements and Time Limit

See General Regulations, section 7 on Good Academic Standing for detailed requirements.

12.1.2.8 Thesis

The candidate, through the graduate unit, shall present a thesis embodying the results of original investigation, conducted by the candidate, on the approved topic from the major field. The thesis, which is a piece of scholarly writing, shall constitute a significant contribution to the knowledge of the field and must be based on research conducted while registered for the PhD program.

A thesis should have a coherent topic with an introduction presenting the general theme of the research and a conclusion summarizing and integrating the major findings. Nonetheless, it may contain a collection of several papers. The collection of papers may be expanded or supplemented by unpublished material, scholarly notes, and necessary appendices. In all theses, pagination should be continuous; there should be a common table of contents and an integrated bibliography for the whole thesis. A thesis must be prepared in a standard format (see National Library guidelines and Guidelines for the Preparation of Theses).

The thesis should normally be written in English, but with the permission of the School of Graduate Studies, a graduate unit may permit or require students in that unit to write the thesis in French.

In Division I, the Humanities, permission may be given for a thesis to be written in a language other than English or French when the language has been approved for use in theses by the graduate unit concerned. Before such permission can be granted, the graduate unit chair must certify in writing to the School of Graduate Studies that the candidate has passed a supervised essay type examination, written in English, which demonstrates the candidate’s proficiency in writing correct and idiomatic English prose. A supplementary abstract of about 5,000 words in English or French must form part of a thesis that is written in a language other than English or French. No language other than English or French may be used for the conduct of Doctoral Final Oral Examinations.

See also General Regulations sections 8.2 Doctoral and Master's Supervision and 8.4 Submission of Theses.

12.1.2.9 Final Oral Examination

All students must defend a thesis at a Final Oral Examination organized by the graduate unit with the cooperation of SGS. See General Regulations section 8.3 Doctoral Final Oral Examination for detailed requirements and deadlines.

12.1.2.10 Time for Completion of Degree

All requirements must be completed within six years from first enrolment for the four-year PhD program and within seven years for the five-year PhD program. In exceptional circumstances, a candidate who has failed to complete all the requirements for the degree within this period may be considered for a maximum of four one-year extensions. See General Regulations section 6.1.11.2 Extension of Time for Completion of Degree Requirements, Doctoral Students.

PhD students who have not completed the degree requirements before the time limit for the degree or by the end of the approved extension period may not enrol further.

For flexible-time PhD program option, see section 12.1.1.3 Flexible-Time PhD Program Option.

12.2 Doctor of Education (EdD)

The EdD program is offered in a variety of programs in multiple graduate units within the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE). The EdD program is designed to provide opportunities for more advanced study for those already engaged in a career related to education.

All students are subject to rules and regulations outlined in the General Regulations​​ section, including section 7 on Good Academic Standing requirements, in addition to these degree requirements and those of the graduate unit in which the student is registered. See specific admission and program requirements in the Programs by Graduate Unit section.

All students must defend a thesis at a Final Oral Examination organized by the graduate unit with the cooperation of SGS. See General Regulations section 8.3 Doctoral Final Oral Examination for detailed requirements and deadlines. In exceptional circumstances, a candidate who has failed to complete all the requirements for the degree within the time limit of six years may be considered for a maximum of four one-year extensions. See 6.1.11 Extension of Time for Completion of Degree Requirements.

Students who have not completed the degree requirements before the six-year time limit or by the end of the extension period may not enrol further.

12.2.1 Admiss​​ion Requirements

Students admitted to this program require an appropriate master's degree with at least B+ standing from a recognized university in a discipline deemed appropriate for the intended field of study.

A student may be enrolled in one of the following graduate units:

12.2.2 Program Requirements

For specific program and registration requirements, see the Programs by Graduate Unit section of this calendar.

  1. Normally, a minimum of one Fall session and one Winter session of full-time study must be taken consecutively, i.e., Fall session (September to December) followed by Winter session (January to April) or Winter session (January to April) followed by Fall session (September to December).
  2. In most programs, students may begin their studies on a part-time basis.
  3. Eight half courses are required for students who have an MEd or MA degree or the equivalent in the same area of specialization proposed at the doctoral level.
    An eight half-​course EdD program should include at least four half courses in the home graduate unit except as otherwise stated in graduate unit program descriptions.
  4. Students in some graduate programs may be required to take a comprehensive examination. Consult the specific graduate unit entry for details.
  5. A thesis embodying the results of original investigation conducted by the student under the direction of an Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) thesis committee.
  6. Students undergo an SGS Final Oral Examination on the content and implications of the thesis to determine the adequacy of both the thesis and its defence by the student.
  7. All requirements for the EdD must be completed within six years of first enrolment as an EdD student.

12.3 Doctor of Juridical Science (SJD)

This degree is offered in the Faculty of Law. Admission and program requirements for the degree program are outlined in the Law entry in the Degree and Diploma Programs by Graduate Unit section. All SJD students are subject to rules and regulations outlined in the General Regulations​, including section 7 on Good Academic Standing requirements, in addition to the degree requirements specified in the Faculty of Law entry.

All doctoral students must defend a thesis at a Final Oral Examination organized by the graduate unit with the cooperation of SGS. See General Regulations section 8.3 Doctoral Final Oral Examination for detailed requirements and deadlines.

12.4 Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA)

This degree is offered in the Faculty of Music. Admission and program requirements for the degree program are outlined in the Music entry in the Degree and Diploma Programs by Graduate Unit section. All DMA students are subject to rules and regulations outlined in the General Regulations​, including section 7 on Good Academic Standing requirements, in addition to the degree requirements specified in the Faculty of Music entry.

All doctoral students must defend a thesis at a Final O​ral Examination organized by the graduate unit with the cooperation of SGS. See General Regulations section 8.3 Doctoral Final Oral Examination for detailed requirements and deadlines.

13 Master's Degrees​​

The University of Toronto offers programs of study leading to the master's degrees listed below. All master's students are subject to rules and regulations outlined in the General Regulations, including section 7 on Good Academic Standing requirements, in addition to the degree requirements specified in the relevant graduate unit entry. Numerous degree types are offered in a variety of programs in multiple graduate units.

Degrees offered in multiple graduate programs are listed first, followed by a chart containing degrees specific to one graduate program.

13.1 Degrees in Multiple Graduate Programs

13.1.1 Master of Arts (MA)

The MA program is offered in a variety of programs in multiple graduate units.

13.1.1.1 Admission Requirements
  1. Applicants must hold an appropriate bachelor's degree with high academic standing from a recognized university.
  2. If the master's program is not a continuation of a course of study previously pursued as an undergraduate, or if there are deficiencies in meeting graduate unit admission requirements, prerequisite work may be required and the normal length of program may be extended.
13.1.1.2 Program Requirements
  1. Under the direction of a graduate unit, a student must pursue a program of advanced study approved by the graduate unit.
  2. All requirements for the MA degree must be satisfactorily completed within 3 years (full-time) or 6 years (part-time) from first enrolment.

Admission and program requirements may vary; consult the individual unit entry for details.

13.1.2 Master of Science (MSc)

The MSc program is offered in a variety of programs in multiple graduate units.

13.1.2.1 Admission Requirements
  1. Applicants must hold an appropriate bachelor's degree with high academic standing from a recognized university.
  2. If the master's program is not a continuation of a course of study previously pursued as an undergraduate, or if there are deficiencies in meeting graduate unit admission requirements, prerequisite work may be required and the minimum length of program may be extended.
13.1.2.2 Program Requirements
  1. Under the direction of a graduate unit, a student must pursue a program of advanced study approved by the graduate unit.
  2. All requirements for the MSc degree must be satisfactorily completed within 3 years (full-time) or 6 years (part-time) from first enrolment.

Admission and program requirements may vary; consult the individual unit entry for details.

13.1.3 Master of Applied Science (MASc)

The MASc program is offered in a variety of programs in multiple graduate units. The MASc degree is intended primarily for those who wish to prepare for a career in research and/or plan to continue their graduate studies through the PhD degree.

13.1.3.1 Admission Requ​irements
  1. Applicants must hold the degree of Bachelor of Applied Science or an equivalent degree in engineering. An applicant having an appropriate bachelor's degree in science or applied mathematics may be admitted as a student by the graduate unit concerned.

    A student may be enrolled in one of the following graduate units:

​13.1.3.2 Program Requiremen​ts
  1. ​Under the ​direction of a graduate unit, a student must pursue a program of study approved by the graduate unit. Normally, the program will include not more than three full-year courses or equivalent and the preparation of a research thesis, the latter being the major requirement.
  2. All requirements for the MASc degree must be satisfactorily completed within 3 years (full-time) or 6 years (part-time) from first enrolment.

Admission and program requirements may vary; consult the individual unit entry for details.

13.1.4 Master of Education (MEd)

The MEd program is offered in a variety of programs in multiple graduate units.

13.1.4.1 Admission Requirements
  1. Applicants must hold an appropriate bachelor's degree from a recognized university, completed with standing equivalent to a mid-B or better in the final year.
  2. A year of professional education for teaching, or the equivalent in pedagogical content, is helpful.
  3. At least one year of relevant, successful, professional experience.
  4. A student may be enrolled in one of the following graduate units:
13.1.4.2 Program Requirements

The minimum program requirements for the MEd degree are as follows:

  1. Under the direction of a graduate unit, a student undertakes one of four options to complete the program. Not all options are available in all graduate units.

    Option I—Coursework Plus Comprehensive

    • 5.0 full-course equivalents (FCEs) plus a comprehensive examination/requirement

    Option II—Research Project

    • 4.0 full-course equivalents (FCEs) plus a research project or a Major Research Paper

    Option III—Thesis

    • 3.0 full-course equivalents (FCEs) plus a thesis​

    Option ​IV—Coursework-Only

    • 5.0 full-course equivalents (FCEs)
  2. The MEd degree program requires that a minimum of half of the courses must be taken in the home department unless otherwise specified by the department.
  3. All requirements for the MEd degree must be satisfactorily completed within 3 years (full-time) or 6 years (part-time) from first enrolment.

Admission and program requirements may vary; consult the individual unit entry for details.

13.1.5 Master of Engineering (MEng)

The MEng program is offered in a variety of programs in multiple graduate units. The MEng degree is intended primarily for those who wish to pursue advanced study at the master's level, which is especially suited for professional practice.

13.1.5.1 Ad​​mission Requirements
  1. Applicants must hold the degree of Bachelor of Applied Science or an equivalent degree in engineering. An applicant having an appropriate bachelor's degree in science or applied mathematics may be admitted as a student by the graduate unit concerned.​​

​​A student may be enrolled in one of the following graduate units:

13.1.5.2 Program Requirements
  1. Under the direction of a graduate unit, a student must pursue a program of study approved by the graduate unit. The program will be equivalent in weight to full-time study for at least two sessions (eight months), and may include a project in addition to lecture and laboratory courses.
  2. There is no general residence requirement for the degree. However, a period of residence may be required, depending on the individual student's program and experience. This required period will be as recommended by the graduate unit and approved by the School of Graduate Studies, but must not exceed two sessions.
  3. The MEng degree program must be completed within 3 years (full-time) or 6 years (part-time) from first enrolment.

Admission and program requirements may vary; consult the individual unit entry for details.

13.1.6 Master of Health Science (MHSc)​

The MHSc program is offered in a variety of programs in multiple graduate units. Admission and program requirements vary; consult the individual unit entry for details.

13.2 Degrees in Single Graduate Programs

Each of the following degrees is offered in an individual graduate unit and program. Admission and program requirements for the degree program vary and are outlined in the applicable entry in the Programs by Graduate Unit section of this calendar, unless otherwise noted. All master's students are subject to rules and regulations outlined in the General Regulations​, including section 7 on Good Academic Standing requirements, in addition to the degree requirements specified in the relevant graduate unit entry.​

The degree names are listed alphabetically; visit the relevant graduate unit webpage where the degree program is decribed.​

D​​egree Name

Degree Abbreviation​

​Graduate Unit

​​Global Professional Master of Laws
GPLLM​
Law
​Master of Architecture
MArch​
​Master of Biotechnology
MBiotech​
​Master of Business Administration
MBA
​Master of Engineering in Cities Engineering and Management
MEngCEM​
Master of Environmental Science​
​MEnvSc​
​Master of Finance
MF​
​Master of Financial Economics
​MFE
​Master of Financial Insurance
​MFI
​Master of Financial Risk Management
​MFRM​
Master of Forensic Accounting MFAcc Management & Innovation
​​Master of Forest Conservation
​MFC
Master of Global Affairs
MGA
​Master of Health Informatics
​MHI
​Master of Industrial Relations and Human Resources
MIRHR
Master of Information
​MI
Master of Landscape Architecture
MLA
Master of Laws
​LLM
Master of Management and Professional Accounting
​MMPA
​Master of Management of Innovation
​MMI
​Master of Mathematical Finance
MMF
Master of Museum Studies
MMSt​
Master of Music
​MMus
Master of Nursing
​MN
Master of Professional Kinesiology
​MPK
Master of Public Health
​MPH
Master of Public Policy
MPP​
Master of Science in Applied Computing
MScAC​
Master of Science in Biomedical Communications
MScBMC​
Master of Science in Community Health
MScCH​​
Master of Science in Forestry
MScF
Master of Science in Occupational Therapy
MScOT
Master of Science in Physical Therapy
MScPT​
Master of Science in Planning
MScPl
Master of Science in Sustainability Management​
MScSM
Master of Social Work
MSW
Master of Studies in Law
​MSL
Law
Master of Teaching
​MT
Master of Urban Design
MUD
Master of Urban Design Studies
​MUDS
Master of Visual Studies
​MVS